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Glossary

Glossary

5-paragraph essay – the essay of typical structure, generally consisting of 5 paragraphs: one for introduction, three paragraphs of the main content and one for conclusion.

Admission essay – the essay you have to present to an admissions committee in order to prove that you are a worthy person to study in this particular educational institution. It contains information about your personality, achievements, interests and plans for the future.

Argumentative essay – the essay that persuades the reader that a particular point of view is correct, while the others are wrong. It shouldn’t simply state the point of view; it should prove it by logical arguments and facts.

Cause and effect essay – the essay that distinguishes the connections between a certain event and what has caused it, defines what cause is and what effect is in some particular case.

Classification essay – the essay that organizes some things (concepts, events, ideas, objects, etc.) into categories, classifies them. It should be supplemented by examples of all the categories.

Comparison essay – the essay that concentrates on contrasting one thing against another, studies their common and different features.

Critical essay – the essay that evaluates something (a piece of writing, a movie, an object of art, etc.) and finally says whether the author agrees or disagrees with it.

Deductive essay – the essay in the course of which the author comes to a certain conclusion by means of logical reasoning along the following scheme: premises – evidence – conclusion.

Definition essay – the essay that explains what this or that word or concept means. The concept may vary from a concrete to highly abstract one.

Exploratory essay – the essay that is written in order to come to a conclusion, not to prove something. Ideally, it should be started without an idea of what answer you will get in the end.

Expository essay – the essay that expresses the point of view of another person (not the author’s) or recounts an event or succession of actions.

Informal essay – the essay written in informal, relaxed manner, mainly in order to amuse both the reader and the author. Nevertheless, it shouldn’t in any way neglect the organization.

Literature essay – the essay dealing with a piece of writing (a novel, a short story, article, whatever). Most commonly presupposes some kind of analysis, for example, a linguistic one.

Narrative essay – the essay that tells the reader a story, describes some event or succession of events, of which the author may have been a witness or just have heard or read about them.

Personal essay – the essay describing the author’s personality, positive traits, successes, explaining shortcomings. Generally, it is written in order to be submitted to an admissions committee.

Persuasive essay – the essay which goal is to persuade the reader of something by means of logical argumentation, facts, statistical data and so on.

Research essay – the essay that tries to prove some idea or point of view. It may be considered a type of persuasive essay, but presupposes the presence of original author’s idea.

Response essay – the essay, in which the author expresses his or her reaction to something (most often a piece of writing, but it may also be a movie, a show, a trend in fashion, etc.)

Scholarship essay – the essay one writes in order to persuade the admission committee that he or she is the best candidate for the scholarship. It describes the personality, why the person is interested in this scholarship, what his plans for the future are, what he did in this field previously.

Brainstorming – the process preceding the writing of an essay when you decide on your topic, what you are going to write about, what your point is, etc.

Literature research – the study of literature prior to essay writing, when you get additional information and factual backup for your ideas.

Statement – the phrase that expresses the main idea of your essay.

Outline – the approximate plan of the essay you compose before you start writing.

Proofreading – the process of looking for grammar mistakes, misprints, omissions and plain errors after completing an essay.

MLA style – one of the widely used styles of formatting, deals mainly with the way of citing sources and the bibliography list. It is used mainly in humanities, especially in linguistics.

APA style – one of the widely accepted styles of formatting, deals with the formatting of citations, the bibliography list and general page formatting. It is used mainly in social sciences.

Chicago/Turabian style – one of the widely spread styles of formatting, mainly concerned with the sources citation. Used as default for writing research papers.

ASA style – one of the widely spread formatting styles dealing with arrangement of bibliographies and footnotes. It is generally used in sociology.

Harvard style – the citation style in which partial citations are placed in round brackets and embedded in the text.

Bluebook style – a widely spread citation system used mainly by law researchers.

Vancouver style – the way of writing references in academic papers generally used in physical sciences, especially medicine.

Stylistics – the study of styles, stylistic devices and the way they are used in different kinds of writing.

Grammar – the system of language in general, consists of syntax, morphology, phonology and semantics.

Punctuation – the rules of usage symbols like comma, full stops, colons, etc. in the text.

Vocabulary – the stock of words used in a particular style of writing.

Writer’s block – condition when a person finds him- or herself unable to produce creative writing.

Plagiarism – the practice of trying to use someone else’s work, idea, piece of writing as if it were your own.

Motivation – the reason or feeling that makes the person do something.