Chicago and Turabian Format

The Chicago Style Manual is a style guide that has been in print since 1906 and, though it doesn’t have any official status, it is in fact the guide that is used by the majority of scholars as the manual of the American English grammar, punctuation and style.

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, more commonly known as the Turabian Style, is a manual published by the University of Chicago Press (the same that publishes Chicago Style Manual). It is widely accepted as a guide for formatting research papers, most notably their citation system and bibliographies.

Their most notable features are as following:

  • They use foot- and endnotes. Footnotes are located at the foot of the page and are placed in numerical order. Endnotes are written in the end of the whole text and are arranged in the same way.
  • Reference to the notes follows the passage where quotation is used and is marked by an Arabic figure written in superscript.
  • When the note is mentioned for the first time, it contains the whole bibliographical information: name of the author, title of the text (in italics), place of publication, name of the publisher, publication date (all three in brackets), page number.
  • Bibliography contains only the sources quoted or referred to in the paper, arranged in alphabetical order by the author’s last name and contain full bibliographical information (as above).
  • If there are two authors, the names of them both are mentioned.
  • If there are three or more authors, only the name of the first one is given (in foot- and endnotes) or all of them are listed (in bibliography)
  • If only the editor or compiler is known, mark his or her name with “ed.” abbreviation.
  • In case of electronic documents, write the date when it was accessed and the web-address you have used for it.

As you may see, Chicago/Turabian format styles are mostly concerned with citation and bibliography formatting. There are, of course, a number of other situations, which are not mentioned here; we recommend you to consult the corresponding manuals for additional reference and more specific information on more narrow examples of the styles’ usage.

Don’t forget to make sure that you need to use particularly this or that style, for they differ rather considerably from other formatting variants, and last-minute alterations may become a real nuisance.

Remember, it is better to use correct formatting from the stage of writing drafts. It is also recommended to write down all the information considering sources you take as a basis at the stage of literature research so as not to forget some important details.

In order to see an essay with properly formatted references and bibliography, view the corresponding sample.
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